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Mambo ya kuzingatia Mapendekezo ya Marekebisho ya Sheria Mbalimbali, Juni 2019

Kuwepo kwa muda wa kutosha kwa wadau/wananchi kuyajadili Mapendekezo ya Marekebisho ya Sheria na kutoa maoni itasaidia kuepuka madhara yanayoweza kujitokeza

Marekebisho ya jumla ya sheria mbalimbali yanaleta mabadiliko muhimu katika sekta husika na jamii kwa ujumla. Ni muhimu kuhakikisha kwamba tunakuwa na mtazamo wa pamoja juu ya matokeo ya mabadiliko hayo kabla ya kupitisha sheria hizo. 

Ushirikishaji unatoa nafasi kwa watu wengi zaidi na kupata mitazamo tofauti katika mchakato huu, kutazama kwa mawanda mapana zaidi na kupata suluhisho sahihi. Hatua hii inaweza kupunguza madhara yanayoweza kujitokeza, kusaidia kuwachechemua wadau kufanya maamuzi sahihi na kufanya utekelezaji wa sheria hizo kuwa rahisi.

Kuna baadhi ya mifano ya hivi karibuni ya kufanya maamuzi yenye nia njema na kupelekea matokeo hasi yasiyotarajiwa. Mifano hiyo inajumuisha mapendekezo ya kuuza korosho pamoja na marekebisho ya Sheria ya Takwimu. Mabadiliko ya Sheria ya Takwimu yalipelekea wadau wa maendeleo kusitisha misaada yao kwa serikali kutokana na mapungufu yaliyopo katika sheria hiyo na sasa mabadiliko yanafanyika tena. Pia tuna mifano ya hvi karibuni ya sheria kupingwa mahakamani mara tuu baada ya kupitishwa; kesi kusikilizwa na hata walalamikaji kushinda. (Sheria ya Vyama vya Siasa na Sheria ya Vyombo vya Habari)

Katika maoni yetu tumejumuisha baadhi ya mambo ambayo yanaweza kuleta matokeo yasiyotegemewa katika utekelezaji wa sheria zinazotarajiwa kufanyiwa mabadiliko. Matarajio yetu ni kwamba uchambuzi huu utaboresha kwa kiwango kikubwa kwa kuongeza nafasi ya kufanya mapitio na kuboresha mapendekezo, hususani kuhakikisha kwamba mapendekezo yanakidhi malengo yaliyokusudiwa kwa ufanisi na manufaa zaidi. 

Marekebisho haya yatabatilisha kazi nzuri na za msingi zinazofanywa na asasi za kiraia 

Marekebisho ya Sheria ya Makampuni, Sheria ya Vyama vya Kijamii yanamaanisha kwamba shirika lolote linalofanya kazi za maendeleo haiziwezi tena kusajiliwa kama kampuni  isiyotengeneza (Marekebisho 4,5,6). Katika Sheria ya Asasi za Kiraia tafsiri ya asasi za kiraia haijitoshelezi kwani haijumuishi kazi za haki za binadamu (Marekebisho 25). Asasi yoyote ambayo itakuwa haijasajaliwa chini ya sheria sahihi kwa mujibu wa tafsiri mpya ya zitapaswa kuomba usajili – bila kujali kama asasi hizo zimesajiliwa tayari, ni taasisi halali ambazo zimeajiri watu, zinzlipa kodi na zinatoa mchango mkubwa kwa jamii na nchi. (Marekebisho 28, 36). Kinyume chake, asasi zinapewa muda wa miezi miwili kuhakikisha zinatekeleza masharti ya sheria mpya (Marekebisho 6). Hata mashirika ambayo tayari yana cheti cha usajili chini sheria ya Asasi za Kiraia yanaweza kufutiwa usajili kama hayatatekeleza matakwa ya sheria mpya (Amendment 28)

Athari za kiuchumi na kijamii zitakazotokana na vikwazo kwa asasi za kiraia

Endapo marekebisho haya yatapitishwa kama yalivyo, mashirika mengi ya kiraia yatafutiwa usajili na kushindwa kuanza tena. Kwa kufanya hivyo kuna madhara kadhaa yatajitokeza ikiwemo; watu kupoteza ajira, watoa huduma kukosa mapato, serikali kupoteza mapato ya kodi (kodi za mapato na kodi za utendaji, pamoja na kodi zinazotokana na bidhaa na huduma zinazotumiwa na mashirika hayo). Pia kuna mashirika mengi yanayotoa huduma mbalimbali, kujenga uwezo, na kutoa rasilimali ambapo wanufaika wake watakosa huduma hizo. 

Marekebisho haya pia yanaweka vikwazo vikubwa kwa watengeneza filamu wa kimataifa (Maarekebisho 17 na 21) ambayo yanalenga kudhibiti matumizi ya mandhari pamoja na maudhui ya filamu nchini Tanzania. Hii inaibua hatari kubwa ya kuwafanya watengeneza filamu kuchagua maeneo mengine ya kufanyia filamu na kuiepuka Tanzania hasa pale watakapokumbana na urasimu usio wa lazima. Hivi karibuni, Afrika Kusini wameingia makubaliano na Kenya kutoa msaada wa kiufundi katika kufundisha lugha ya Kiswahili. Je, kuna uwezekano kwamba fursa hii haikuletwa Tanzania kwa sababu ya kukithiri kwa urasimu? Marekebisho haya pia yanaonekana kukinzana na msimamo wa serikali wa kujenga mazingira rafiki kwa kupunguza urasimu katika uratibu wa sekta binafsi.

Kutokana na kuongezeka kwa kiwango cha udhibiti, mamlaka makubwa wanayopewa maafisa na tafsiri kandamizi zilizopo katika marekebisho haya, yanaweza kusababisha mgongano na jamii ya kimataifa na kupelekea kuharibu taswira ya nchi. Badala yake tunapaswa kushirikiana kuhakikisha tunafanyia kazi marekebisho haya kwa umakini ili kuweka mizania muhimu kuhakikisha kuwa majukumu ya Msajili mbali na kudhibiti pia yanakuwa wezeshi kwa asasi za kiraia. Maoni haya pia yanakusudia kuepusha athari kwa shughuli za kitalii na vyanzo vingine vya mapato ambavyo vinategemea mapato kutoka nje ya nchi.

Mianya mipya ya kuchuja taarifa

Mapendekezo ya Marekebisho ya Sheria ya Filamu na Michezo ya Kuigiza ni mapana  sana kiasi cha kuweka vikwazo hususani katika maudhui ya picha za video.

Majukumu ya Bodi ya Filamu (Marekebisho 18) ni mapana na yanajumuisha kudhibiti, kufuatilia, kutoa vibali, kuidhinisha na kusimamia. Majukumu haya yote hayajafafanuliwa kwa ufasaha hivyo kutoa mamlaka yasiyodhibitiwa kwa Bodi ya Filamu katika kusimamia maudhui.

Pendekezo la 20 linatoa mamlaka yasiyo ya kawaida ya kudhibiti maudhui, ikisisitiza kwamba kila bango litakaloandaliwa na kubandikwa hadharani linapaswa kupitiwa na kuidhinishwa na Bodi ya Filamu.

Kukosekana kwa usawa na kutokufuatwa kwa misingi ya utoaji haki

Msajili na Waziri wote wanateuliwa, hii hupelekea kuwa na mitizamo sawa na Rais katika mambo mengi. Wakati huo huo, wanapewa mamlaka ya kufanya maamuzi ya haki na yasiyo ya kibaguzi katika kufungia mashirika. Msajili anapewa majukumu ya kushutumu na kuhukumu, kinyume na misingi ya asili ya haki. Kwa kuzingatia kile anachokiamini, kwa mfano kuhusu kampuni inayojihusisha na masuala ya kijinai, Msajili anaweza kuiandikia barua na kufikia maamuzi kwamba hajaridhishwa na majibu ya kampuni hiyo na kuifutia usajili kampuni hiyo (Marekebisho 10). Kwa mujibu wa Marekebisho, hakuna haja ya kutatua mashauri haya katika mahakama yoyote au vyombo vingine vya maamuzi. Kampuni inaweza kutafuta suluhu mahakamani ikiwa tayari imeshafungiwa. Hii ni kinyume na misingi ya haki ya asili ambayo ipo kwa mujibu wa sheria za nchi.

Vile vile, Marekebisho ya 26 la Sheria ya Asasi za Kiraia yanamuongezea mamlaka mawili Msajili wa Asasi za Kiraia: mamlaka ya kusimamisha asasi na mamlaka ya kufanya uperembaji wa asasi kila baada ya miezi mitatu. Hata hivyo, hakuna sababu yoyote ya msingi inayotajwa kuthibitisha mamlaka hayo mapana. 

Uhai wa mashirika yaliyosajiliwa chini ya Sheria ya Vyama vya Jamii, uko chini ya matakwa ya Waziri. Marekebisho ya 38 yanatoa mamlaka kwa upande wa Waziri kufuta chama cha kijamii kwa kuwa tishio kwa utawala bora wa nchi. 

The impacts to your work

1. International organizations that often provide support for in-constituency development projects are also likely to face challenges with the stringent and frequent reporting requirements (more than we are required to report to donors!) and the restrictions being placed on local NGOs with whom they partner or to whom they provide funds. 

2. The domestic national organizations who support you to be more effective – providing data, analysis and insight for your parliamentary interventions may no longer be able to operate.

3. There are a number of important areas of work to which civil societies have contributed that appear impossible to implement under these new definitions and regulations.

 The #MbungeLive show profiles MPs’ work in their constituencies and provides the views of citizens on the same.

• The Teleza campaign surfaced an issue that had been hidden for many years and was causing great suffering to women. Civil society helped to uncover this story so that the government could intervene.

• During the recent review of the Decentralization Policy, national civil society organizations joined together to support the logistics of the workshops in each zone as well as the participation of 90 local organizations in the review process.

4. If you have a non-profit organization you established or inherited, are you aware of its status and level of compliance?

Madhara ya Marekebisho haya kwa kazi za Wabunge

1. Mashirika ya kimataifa ambayo mara nyingi hutoa misaada ya kimaendeleo kupitia miradi mbalimbali katika ngazi ya jimbo nayo yapo katika hatari ya kukumbana na vikwazo kwa kutakiwa kutoa taarifa za mara kwa mara (zaidi ya vile ambavyo wanapaswa kuripoti kwa wafadhili!) sambamba na vikwazo vilivyowekwa kwa asasi za kiraia za ndani ambazo hufanya kazi kwa kushirikiana.

2. Asasi za kiraia za ndani ambazo huongeza ufanisi wa wabunge kwa kuwapa taarifa za msingi na kufanya uchambuzi kwa lengo la kuboresha mijadala ya kibunge zinaweza kufutwa muda wowote na kutokufanya kazi hizo tena.

3. Kuna maeneo mengi muhimu ya kazi ambayo asasi za kiraia zimechangia ambayo hayatatekelezeka chini ya tafsiri na kanuni mpya zinazotolewa katika Marekebisho haya.

• Masuala kama kampeni ya Teleza ambayo imeibuliwa baada ya kufichwa kwa miaka mingi mbali na kusababisha mateso makubwa kwa wanawake. Asasi za Kiraia ziliibua matatizo kama haya na kutoa kuisadia kwa serikali kuchukua hatua za kisheria.

• Wakati wa mapitio ya sera ya utawala – decentralization, asasi za kiraia ziliungana na kuchangia uwezeshaji wa semina katika kila kanda pamoja na kushiriki kwa washiriki 90 kila kanda.

• Programu za kuhamasisha uwajibikaji katika majimbo ikiwemo program ya #MbungeLive

4. Kama una asasi ya kiraia ambayo umeanzisha au kurithi, je, unafahamu hali na kiwango chake cha ufuataji wa sheria?

Kuweka vikwazo katika historia ndefu na yenye manufaa katika kujumuika na kushirikiana 

Watanzania wana historia ndefu ya kujumuika, kushirikiana na kufanya kazi kwa pamoja, hususani katika mifumo isiyo rasmi. Marekebisho haya yanaweza kuathiri historia hii kwa kiasi kikubwa. Mashirika mengi nchini yatapata shida kufikia vigezo vipya vilivyowekwa ili kujisajili au yatashindwa kufanikisha usajili katika muda mchache uliwekwa kwa sababu zilizo nje ya uwezo wao. Urasimu pia unaweza kukatisha tamaa mashirika mapya kuanza. Kwa kiwango kikubwa hii itaathiri uwezo na utayari na nafasi ya jamii na kupelekea wananchi kushindwa kujumuika. Sheria ya Maudhui Mtandaoni (2018) imeleta hali hii kwa waandishi wa habari za mtandaoni (bloggers): blogu nyingi zilifungwa mara baada ya kutungwa kwa sheria hiyo, wengine waliomba usajili wakijua malipo ya ada yatalipwa kwa awamu na baadae wakashindwa kuendelea baada ya kutakiwa kulipa kwa mara moja. Blogu nyingi sasa zimefungwa nchini Tanzania.

Kunyamazisha sauti za wananchi, kupelekea kutokuridhika

Chini ya Marekebisho haya, wananchi watakuwa na nafasi finyu na kukosa njia mbadala za kutatua changamoto zao endapo njia zao za kawaida zitashindikana. Asasi za kiraia zinatoa mchango muhimu katika kuchambua na kupaza sauti za wananchi katika michakato ya kuandaa sera, kuelezea malalamiko, au kuwawezesha kujifunza zaidi kuhusu masuala mbalimbali; asasi za kiraia husaidia kujenga uelewa juu ya tarifa muhimu za serikali; pia asasi za kiraia huwezesha ushiriki wa wananchi. Mashirika mengi yanayofanya kazi hii yapo katika hatari ya kufutiwa usajili. Hii inaweza kupelekea hali ambayo wananchi watajiona wanakosa nafasi ya kueleza changamoto na masuala yao, na kuwafanya wajihisi kutengwa na kutokuwa na nguvu katika kufanya maamuzi ya wanayowahusu.

Currently in Parliament, a series of laws are being changed. These changes are being made urgently using rules that are normally meant to govern emergencies or crisis. Overall, taken together, the laws generally regulate how organisations are managed by the government and affect how all freely all citizens can express their views, participate in decisions that affect them and hold their representatives accountable.

We hear a lot about civil society, but what is it and what do they do? This name is used for organisations working in the interest of the citizens but operating outside of the governmental and private sectors.

What has civil society in Tanzania contributed?

• Civil society can provide services directly – they might care for people with certain diseases or make sure less fortunate kids still get access to books.

• Sometimes in this role they work directly with the government, helping to build government health centers, water sources and schools.

• Civil society can help government get feedback on its decisions and actions, either from an organisation or by collecting views from different groups and areas

• Civil society organisations often help to come up with new ideas and solutions to problems that they can try to out before advising government on whether they work or not

• Civil society can provide an honest but helpful mirror to government to understand how well they are doing and how to better serve the people

• Civil society works to make society more equal by protecting those who often have a harder time being hard or accessing opportunities

• Civil society organisations help us to learn, they generate new knowledge and share this with citizens and leaders so it can contribute to our progress and development

• As organisations, civil society employ thousands of people, pays hundreds of millions of shillings in tax and contributes millions of shillings to the local economy by buying products and services

 But these laws present a threat to civil society in Tanzania for two major reasons:

 Lack of fair play

In government, there are many officials who play the role of a referee in a football match. And yet the referees in government are always hired by one particular team. This means that we must take great care not to allow them too much power over the other teams or players. In these changes to the law, there are at least three cases of officials being able to just decide to close down organisations based on their beliefs. Companies can even be closed down because the Registrar believes they have committed a crime.

And what if, for example, when you came to play your next match, you were told that all teams with stripes on their shoes were no longer considered teams and could not play. In these changes, what it means to be an NGO has been changed and many of us do have stripes on our shoes and won’t be able to play anymore.

Changing the rules

In these changes, it is as if the entire rules of the game have been changed – who is allowed to play, what game, what is the pitch like, hands or feet. But then the players are only given a very short time to learn the new rules, adjust their team to manage and start scoring goals again. These things should be changed with discussion and consultation, and allow people time to adapt.

 No complaining

And while all of this is happening to the game you play or love, you are not meant to complain about it or get together with your peers to try to solve what you see as problems. Part of these changes to the law are designed to exert more control over what we say and see, how we come together.

Overall, we believe that it is important to coordinate all the different organisations and actors in the country, and this is an important part of the job of government. But we must make changes carefully and thoughtfully, with time to think and imagine. Otherwise we will start with good intentions but emerge with unintended consequences. And these can take years to correct.


download REPORT Posted on : 25 June, 2019